Torticollis is a condition that occurs when the muscle that runs up and toward the back of the neck becomes tight, weakened, or thickened, causing the head to tilt; the chin points toward one shoulder while the head tilts toward the opposite shoulder. The most common form of this condition is congenital muscular torticollis (CMT), which affects infants and is generally diagnosed within the first 2 months of life; however, torticollis also can occur in adults.

In 1992, the American Academy of Pediatrics began their “Back to Sleep” campaign to reduce Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). The campaign successfully decreased SIDS by 40% in the United States, but it had an unintended result of contributing to the development of CMT in about 1 in every 250 infants. (Talk to your family physician and/or pediatrician if you have any questions about the “Back to Sleep” campaign.

If symptoms such as trouble breathing or swallowing, weakness in the arms or legs, impaired speech, difficulty walking, a pins-and-needles feeling or numbness in the arms or legs, or urinary or fecal incontinence accompany the head tilt—seek immediate medical attention.

What is Torticollis?

Torticollis is the tilt and/or rotation of the head because of tight and weak neck muscles. It occurs when the muscle that runs up and toward the back of the neck (the sternocleidomastoid muscle) becomes tight, weakened, or thickened. There are 5 forms of the condition:

  • Congenital muscular torticollis (CMT) is the most common form of the condition. It affects infants and is generally diagnosed within the first 2 months of life. CMT is often caused by birth trauma, or by sleeping or remaining in 1 position for a prolonged period of time.
  • Postural torticollis is diagnosed when the infant’s head tilt comes and goes. It is diagnosed within the first 5 months of life and often is the result of a lack of a variety of positions.
  • Ocular torticollis is caused by a vision problem in 1 eye, causing the individual to tilt his or her head to see better.
  • Spasmodic torticollis (wryneck) occurs in older children and adults. It can be caused by infection, inflammation, trauma, or the side effects of certain medications and/or drugs such as Ketamine, Cocaine, Prochlorperazine, Haloperidol, Chlorpromazine, and amphetamines.
  • Acute torticollis occurs when a child or adult bends or twists the neck too far, or experiences some type of trauma. There may be pain when the head is moved from side to side or up and down; the neck muscle may be tender to touch.
  • Osseous abnormalities are caused by improper alignment of the cervical spine (at the spinal points C1-C2) when ligaments are damaged due to an infection. The types of infection that can cause this condition include: severe upper respiratory, ear, or sinus infections; or cervical adenitis and cervical abscess. Any inflammatory process that irritates the muscles, nerves, or vertebrae—including surgery or trauma—can produce a reflex spasm resulting in this form of torticollis.
  • Neurogenic abnormalities cause an acute episode of a condition that usually occurs in older children, such as a spinal cord tumor or progressive spinal cord diseases. Children will experience headaches, vomiting, and positive neurological signs. Seek immediate medical attention if any of these symptoms occur.

Torticollis may lead to additional problems, such as:

  • Flattening of the skull (phylagocephaly) in infants
  • Movement that favors 1 side of the body, affecting the arms, trunk, and hips. This can lead to strength imbalances, such as an elevated shoulder and side-bending of the trunk.
  • Developmental hip dysplasia
  • Scoliosis
  • Limited ability to turn the head to see, hear, and interact with surroundings, which can lead to delayed cognitive development
  • Delayed body awareness or lack of self-awareness and interaction
  • Difficulty with balance

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Signs and Symptoms

An adult, child, or infant may keep the head tilted and/or rotated toward 1 side of the body as attempting to straighten the neck is difficult or painful. For example, if the muscle on the left side of the neck is shortened, weak, or in spasm—the head may tilt toward the left shoulder and rotate toward the right.There may be tightness in the neck or a noticeable lump in the neck muscle. Pain may or may not be present, depending on the type of torticollis.

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How is it Diagnosed?

Torticollis in adults is generally diagnosed by physicians. Experienced pediatric physical therapists may diagnosis the need for treatment of congenital muscular torticollis and positional torticollis.

Once the type of torticollis is determined, your physical therapist may provide treatment. In most cases, torticollis is a muscular problem, and physical therapists are musculoskeletal experts.

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How Can a Physical Therapist Help?

Regardless of the patient’s age, physical therapy is the primary treatment for all forms of torticollis. Physical therapists provide treatment to address the impairments that are caused by torticollis. Early treatment results in the best outcomes.

The physical therapist will work with a child’s caregiver or with an adult patient to develop and reach mutual goals. This may include an individualized treatment plan to:

  • Strengthen neck muscles
  • Correct muscle imbalance
  • Gain pain-free movement (range of motion)
  • Improve postural control and symmetry
  • Improve the body’s alignment by easing muscle tension

These goals may be achieved through stretching, strengthening, massage, positioning, taping, and a home exercise program. If not treated, torticollis can become a permanent condition.

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What Kind of Physical Therapist Do I Need?

All physical therapists are prepared through education and experience to treat a variety of conditions, including torticollis. However, you may want to consider:

  • A physical therapist who is experienced in treating individuals with torticollis
  • A pediatric physical therapist if it involves a child
  • A physical therapist who is a board-certified clinical specialist or who has completed training in pediatric or neurologic physical therapy. This type of therapist has advanced knowledge, experience, and skills that may apply to your condition

You can find physical therapists who have these and other credentials by using Find a PT, the online tool built by the American Physical Therapy Association to help you search for physical therapists with specific clinical expertise in your geographic area.

General tips when you’re looking for a physical therapist (or any other health care provider):

  • Get recommendations from family and friends or from other health care providers.
  • When you contact a physical therapy clinic for an appointment, ask about the physical therapist’s experience in helping people who have torticollis.
  • During your first visit with the physical therapist, be prepared to describe your symptoms in as much detail as possible, including what makes your symptoms worse.

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Further Reading

The following articles provide some of the best scientific evidence related to physical therapy treatment of torticollis. The articles report recent research and give an overview of the standards of practice both in the United States and internationally. The article titles are linked either to a PubMed* abstract of the article or to free full text, so that you can read it or print out a copy to bring with you to your health care provider.

Stringer H. PTs offer hope for treating flat head syndrome in babies. Today In PT. June 7, 2010:30-31. (Article summary is not available.)

Gray GM, Tasso KH. Differential diagnosis of torticollis: a case report. Pediatr Phys Ther. 2009;21:369–374. Article Summary on PubMed.

Ohman AM, Beckung ER. Reference values for range of motion and muscle function of the neck in infants. Pediatr Phys Ther. 2008;20:53-58. Article Summary on PubMed.

Freed SS, Coulter-O’Berry C. Identification and treatment of congenital muscular torticollis in infants. J Prosthet Orthot. 2004;16:18–23. Free Article.

American Physical Therapy Association. Guide to Phyical Therapist Practice. 2nd ed. Alexandria, VA: American Physical Therapy Association; 2003:146-160.

Mezue WC, Taha ZM, Bashir EM. Fever and acquired torticollis in hospitalized children. J Laryngol Otol. 2002;116:280-284. Article Summary on PubMed.

Long T, Tascano K. Handbook of Pediatric Physical Therapy. 2nd ed. Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2002.

Acknowledgements: Judy Lindsay, PT.

*PubMed is a free online resource developed by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). PubMed contains millions of citations to biomedical literature, including citations in the National Library of Medicine’s MEDLINE database.

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