What is autism?
Autism is a developmental disability that causes problems with social skills and communication. Autism can be mild or severe. It is different for every person. Autism is also known as autism spectrum disorders .
What are some signs or symptoms of autism?
Children with autism may have problems with communication, social skills, and reacting to the world around them. Not all behaviors will exist in every child. A diagnosis should be made by the child’s doctor or other professional with experience in working with children with autism. Possible signs and symptoms are outlined below.
- Not speaking or very limited speech
- Loss of words the child was previously able to say
- Difficulty expressing basic wants and needs
- Poor vocabulary development
- Problems following directions or finding objects that are named
- Repeating what is said (echolalia)
- Problems answering questions
- Speech that sounds different (e.g., “robotic” speech or speech that is high-pitched)
- Poor eye contact with people or objects
- Poor play skills (pretend or social play)
- Being overly focused on a topic or objects that interest them
- Problems making friends
- Crying, becoming angry, giggling, or laughing for no known reason or at the wrong time
- Disliking being touched or held
Reacting to the world around them:
- Rocking, hand flapping or other movements (self-stimulating movements)
- Not paying attention to things the child sees or hears
- Problems dealing with changes in routine
- Using objects in unusual ways
- Unusual attachments to objects
- No fear of real dangers
- Being either very sensitive or not sensitive enough to touch, light, or sounds (e.g., disliking loud sounds or only responding when sounds are very loud; also called asensory integration disorder)
- Feeding difficulties (accepting only select foods, refusing certain food textures)
- Sleep problems
What treatments are available for people with autism?
There is no known cure for autism. In some cases, medications and dietary restrictions may help control symptoms. Intervention should begin when the child is young. Early intervention and preschool programs are very important. An evaluation by an SLP should be completed to determine social skill and communication needs. An appropriate treatment plan that meets the needs of the child and family can then be established. Treatment may include any combination of traditional speech and language approaches, augmentative and alternative communication, and behavioral interventions. It is also important to have the child’s hearing evaluated to rule out hearing loss.
Read more in this guide from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), Therapies for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review of the Research for Parents and Caregivers.
To locate a speech-language pathologist, visit ASHA’s Find A Professional.
What other organizations have information about autism?
This list is not exhaustive and inclusion does not imply endorsement of the organization or the content of the website by ASHA.
- Autism Society of America
- Autism Speaks
Watch video clips of early red flags of autism in the ASD Video Glossary
- Autism Today
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Autism Information Center
- Cure Autism Now
- National Institutes of Mental Health Autism Information